Causes and Remedies of Pedagogical Retardation
Before we discuss the causes and remedies of pedagogical retardation, let us make sure that we are agreed as to the meaning of retardation. In our city school systems most of the children enter the first grade at the age of six or seven. Some of them are promoted each year and reach the eighth grade at fourteen or fifteen years of age. Others are not regularly promoted from grade to grade. They fall behind and at the age of fourteen they find themselves not in the eighth grade but in the fifth or sixth. This falling back process is termed retardation. A child who is of the normal age for his grade, i.e., six or seven years for the first grade, seven or eight years for the second, eight or nine years for the third, and so on allowing one additional year for each grade, is said to be of the normal age for his grade. A child who is over the normal age for his grade is called retarded or below grade, and one who is under the normal age for his grade is called advanced or above grade.
Bailey, Mary R. T, "Causes and Remedies of Pedagogical Retardation" (1926). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI29336605.