Teacher self-efficacy and consultation within a response to intervention framework

M. Kylee O'Toole, Fordham University


Response to intervention (RTI) refers to an educational framework that uses multiple tiers of intervention to improve student learning and to identify those in need of additional support services. Within RTI, teachers are expected to take on greater responsibility for working with children who are struggling academically. In the current investigation, a hypothetical child who is struggling academically is identified through RTI screening. Two hundred and fifty seven elementary school teachers were shown videotaped simulated sessions representing the problem identification, analysis, and intervention stages of RTI. After measuring teacher pre-self-efficacy, the interventions (representing potential sources of teacher efficacy) were manipulated, examining pre-intervention teacher outcome expectancy. Subsequently the outcomes of the interventions were manipulated (child makes progress or fails to make progress), examining post intervention changes in teacher self-efficacy and future outcome expectancies for the child's progress. Intervention conditions varied on two dimensions: school psychologist consultation services versus no school psychologist consultation services and push-in reading specialist services versus no push-in reading specialist services. Results indicated that prior to intervention higher outcome expectancies were expressed by teachers who were told that the child would receive push-in support in the classroom from a reading specialist. Post intervention, student outcome of progress was associated with higher teacher self-efficacy and higher outcome expectancies for future student performance, regardless of intervention. Lack of student progress was associated with greater likelihood of teachers indicating a need for special education referral. Findings highlight the critical role of student progress in teacher self-efficacy and outcome expectancies.

Subject Area

Educational psychology

Recommended Citation

O'Toole, M. Kylee, "Teacher self-efficacy and consultation within a response to intervention framework" (2014). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI3632110.