Measuring principals' styles of supervision

Robert Martin Smalt, Fordham University


The purpose of this study was to develop two reliable and valid instruments that may be used by principals and teachers for measuring principals' styles of supervision. The statement of the problem was that students', teachers', and principals' core technologies are changing and the literature suggested that an instrument did not exist that would measure principals' styles of supervision reflecting current research. Principals' supervisory leadership is important in the school reform movement, and the instruments developed in this study may help to improve teaching and learning. The focus of this study was based upon appropriate models of supervision that support the new core technologies of students, teachers, and principals. Supervision is one area that needs to be addressed in America's schools. The Principals' Analysis of Supervisory Styles (PASS) and the Teachers' Analysis of their Principals' Supervisory Styles (TAPSS) instruments, developed in this study, were created using BARS (Behavioral Anchored Rating scales) methodology. Content and construct validity were measured and found to be present in both instruments. Discriminant validity was found only in the principals' instrument. The teachers' instrument is in need of further study involving discriminant validity. In conclusion, the principals' instrument can be a valuable tool in assessing principals' styles of supervision. The information collected from this instrument has the direct ability to inform, educate, and influence principals to learn more about their supervisory styles. Additionally, the principals' instrument may initiate principals' desire to pursue staff development in supervision to learn more about the teaching and learning process. A presupposition that principals' supervisory styles may optimally affect school climate, parent involvement, employee job satisfaction, teachers' professional growth, and/or student achievement is quite appealing and has important implications for practitioners. The principals' and teachers' instruments were developed with the expectation that they will assist in furthering the understanding of supervision while improving schools.

Subject Area

School administration|Educational evaluation|Occupational psychology

Recommended Citation

Smalt, Robert Martin, "Measuring principals' styles of supervision" (1997). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI9729610.