The prolific growth of technological advancements has undoubtedly improved the quality of life for many, both directly and indirectly. However, the integral role technology now plays in our society presents a plethora of opportunities for the technologically-savvy to exploit; the consequences of such, many world leaders are incapable of dealing with. The 2016 United States Council of Economic Advisers estimated that pernicious operations resulted in losses upwards of fifty billion dollars. Indeed, hackers have intervened in governmental affairs, most notably in the fields of national defense, central infrastructure, and information and communication technologies (ICT).

In most cases, these crimes cross international borders. The need for a form of global governance was recognized in light of these increasingly pervasive cybersecurity attacks. In 2019, the French Ministère des Armées (Ministry of the Armies) released four major reports tackling the issue of cybersecurity in the international sphere. The last report, “Droit International Appliqué aux Opérations dans le Cyberespace” (In English: International Law Applied to Operations in Cyberspace) stands out as a watershed document on cybersecurity in international law.

Despite its apparent ambiguity, it pushes the global understanding of international law as a powerful tool to mediate crises such as cybersecurity threats. The document has established itself as a precedent and can be expected to influence other countries in the upcoming months.