Date of Award

Winter 2-1-2023

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (BA)


Sarah Lockhart, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Stephanie Szitanyi, Ph.D.


Despite decades of disempowerment, some ethnic enclaves of colonial powers –termed colonial enclaves– remain in the decolonized country they once controlled. In international law or United Nations resolutions, there currently are no special distinctions between colonial enclaves and other types of ethnic enclaves or non-state actors. This thesis analyzes the social dynamics of ethnic enclaves and the existing laws that govern non-state actors to then investigate two cases of colonial enclaves: ethnic Russians in Estonia and Afrikaners in South Africa. Based on this case study research, it can be concluded that colonial enclaves have unique social and political dynamics that give reason to distinguish them from other non-state actors in international law.