Andrew LaZella


Medieval Studies | Philosophy | Religion


The Singular Voice of Being reconsiders John Duns Scotus’s well-covered theory of the univocity of being in light of his less explored discussions of ultimate difference. Ultimate difference is a notion introduced by Aristotle and known by the Aristotelian tradition, but one that, the book argues, Scotus radically retrofits to buttress his doctrine of univocity. Ultimate difference for Aristotle meant the last difference in a line of specific differences whereby all the preceding differences would be united into a single substance rather than remain a heapish multiplicity. LaZella argues that Scotus both broadens and deepens the term such that, in the end, it comes to resemble its Aristotelian ancestor more in name than in substance.

This systematic study of ultimate difference opens new dimensions for understanding Scotus’s dense thought with respect to not only univocity, but also individuation, cognition, and acts of the will. The book aims to place Scotus’s thought in conversation around topics of metaphysics, cognition, and language relevant to contemporary philosophers from various traditions.

Andrew LaZella is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at The University of Scranton.



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