Leading under labels: The relationship between state applied sanctions and principal self-efficacy

Matthew Desing Bolton, Fordham University


The study investigated the relationship between the state of New Jersey’s accountability measures of applying school labels and perceived levels of principal self-efficacy. The conceptual framework for this study was grounded in the research of Albert Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory (1993). The research employed Tschannen-Moran & Gareis’ (2004) Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) to measure principal self-efficacy perceptions. Confirmatory factor analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis was conducted to assess internal validity of the instrument’s factor structure. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and separate analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were also conducted to differences in mean scores of principals according to labeled groups as well as six tested demographic variables. Principal participation was a limiting factor within the study. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a poor fit between the theoretical factor model and the current study’s data. Principal axis factor analysis was conducted and showed the presence of a four-factor model. Further research into the internal validity of the PSES is warranted. The study did not find any correlation between state applied label and principal self-efficacy. Statistically significant correlations were found between principal self-efficacy and the demographic variables of years of principal experience, percent of special educations students, school level, and school size.

Subject Area

Educational leadership

Recommended Citation

Bolton, Matthew Desing, "Leading under labels: The relationship between state applied sanctions and principal self-efficacy" (2016). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI10000741.