Invented Spelling and Specific Memory Processes as Indicators of Word Reading

Mary Elizabeth Braddock, Fordham University


The purpose of this study was to understand and identify skill deficits among at-risk readers above and beyond phonological awareness and rapid naming weaknesses. This study was also interested in assessing the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and the Color Span test, a test of specific short-term memory processes, for predicting word reading. The invented spelling task altered the difficulty levels of items by incorporating linguistic manipulations. Participants were asked to spell a variety of words with different syllable combinations, real and nonreal words, and CVC and CVCC/CCVC words. The results of this study showed that poor readers had more difficulty on tasks of phonological awareness, rapid naming, conventional spelling, invented spelling, and word stress identification. No differences were found on the Color Span test results. The invented spelling test was found to be a unique predictor of word reading when considering the effects of phonological awareness and rapid naming. The Color Span test was not a unique predictor of word reading. The invented spelling tool is an important tool to consider in the assessment, identification, and intervention of at-risk readers. Practical implications for incorporating invented spelling into the classroom are also discussed.

Subject Area

Educational tests & measurements|Education|Psychology

Recommended Citation

Braddock, Mary Elizabeth, "Invented Spelling and Specific Memory Processes as Indicators of Word Reading" (2019). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI13809989.