Development and Piloting of the Multiracial Microaggressions Scale

Steven Kevin Carter, Fordham University


The purpose of this study was to report the initial development and piloting of an instrument to specifically measure multiracial microaggressions, which are “daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, enacted by monoracial persons that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights toward multiracial individuals or groups” (Johnston & Nadal, 2010, p. 126). The Multiracial Microaggressions Scale (MMS) was established as the first instrument to analyze the frequency and distress associated with this unique form of microaggressions. The sample in the study consisted entirely of individuals who identified as multiracial (N = 402). Using a split-sample design, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 201) resulted in the following three factor structure: (a) Exclusion and Denial of Multiracial Reality, (b) Negative Impact of Multiracial Identity on Relationships, and (c) Treatment and Assumptions based on Physical Appearance. The next phase of the study included a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201) which indicated that the three-factor model was an insufficient fit for the data. The MMS did however have high levels of internal consistency for each of the three factors, was significantly positively correlated with two previously validated racial microaggressions scales (REMS; Nadal, 2011 and RMAS; Torres-Harding et al., 2012), and included items endorsed more frequently than items in the monoracial microaggression scales. Limitations, future directions for research, and implications for practice are discussed.

Subject Area

Ethnic studies|Educational leadership|Education

Recommended Citation

Carter, Steven Kevin, "Development and Piloting of the Multiracial Microaggressions Scale" (2021). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI28414499.