Essays on Health and Out-of-Pocket Expenditures
This dissertation consists of two independent research papers on the topic of health and out-of-pocket expenditures in China. The former one focuses on literature, while the latter one focuses on the modelling of dynamic relationship between health and out-of-pocket expenditures. In the first chapter, I analyze the correlation between out-of-pocket expenditures and Activities of Daily Living or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living limitations and chronic conditions and bridges the gap in the literatures on the out-of-pocket expenditures of living with a disability and chronic health conditions in China. This paper provides findings on the correlation between Activities of Daily Living limitation/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living limitation/Chronic conditions and higher probability of incurring out-of-pocket expenditures and higher value of out-of-pocket expenditures. In the second chapter, I produce unbiased and consistent estimates of the effects of health measured by activity limitations and chronic conditions on out-of-pocket expenditures across different subgroups among the middle-aged and older adults in China and explore potentially different effects of activity limitations and chronic conditions on out-of-pocket expenditures. The results imply the poorer accessibility of health care service, especially among the most socioeconomically disadvantaged group and the association of chronic conditions with on out-of-pocket expenditures are larger than that of Activities of Daily Living or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living limitations.
Gao, Jingyi, "Essays on Health and Out-of-Pocket Expenditures" (2023). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI30523540.