Parole: The Origin and Development of the New York State Parole Division as an Independent Casework Agency, 1930–1962
"Probably no phase of penology has been so bitterly attacked or so zealously defended in the past decade as parole. "This observation appears to be as valid to-day as it was at the time it was included in the volume which has come to be accepted by many as a foremost authority on the correctional field. Parole has existed in New York State since its inception at the Elmira Reformatory in 1876. The system was later incorporated into the adult correctional institutions at about the turn of the century. From the beginning and until the present Parole Division was established in New York State in 1930, the administration of the release authority was centered in the institution and was a Department of Correction responsibility. Since 1930, the New York State Division of Parole has maintained its own autonomy within the Executive Department of the State government. The philosophy and the system have had a turbulent course. Many have believed that the theory is sound and that there can be no other approach in view of our constitutional method of dealing with incarcerated offenders. Others have vociferously shouted "laxity", "coddling", and "inefficiency" through the years. The Parole Division in New York State has achieved stature and recognition in spite of critics who have been untiring in their demand that the system be modified or abandoned. There is currently a universal acceptance of the validity of the principles. As former Governor Herbert H. Lehman once commented, "No prisoner has a right to parole. The public does have a right to parole."
American studies|Social work
Schrader, Earl C, "Parole: The Origin and Development of the New York State Parole Division as an Independent Casework Agency, 1930–1962" (1962). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI31050590.