Efficacy, goals, and reflection: A comparison of National Board Certified Teachers and non -National Board Certified teachers

Sheryl Tracy Smikle, Fordham University


The following dissertation research study focused on 30 randomly selected primary and middle school teachers from Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York. Fifteen of these teachers successfully completed the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards teacher assessment process, which resulted in the designation of National Board Certified Teacher (NBCT). The remaining 15 teachers have at least a baccalaureate degree, but are not nationally certified (NNBCTs). The objective of this ex post facto study was to explore whether distinct differences exist between these 2 groups of teachers in the areas of self-efficacy, work domain orientation, and reflective practices, as a result of their respective NBCT status. The participants in this study did not receive any experimental treatment. The so-called treatment in this case, their NBCT status, occurred naturally and it is the effects of this status on the aforementioned 3 dependent variables that was the subject of this inquiry. This study included a mixture of quantitative measures, for example, the Teacher Efficacy Scale (Hoy & Woolfolk, 1990) and the Work Domain Goal Orientation Instrument (Vandewalle, 1997, 2001), and qualitative techniques, such as surveys, questionnaires, and the use of grounded theory (Creswell, 1988; Foss & Waters, 2003). This hybrid research approach strengthened the interpretive validity of the study results. Two distinct patterns emerged: First, NBCTs believe more strongly than NNBCTs in the collective power and influence of teachers upon challenging students, which is referred to as general teaching efficacy (GTE). Statistical analysis of the GTE scores of both teacher groups indicated that a statistical difference was present: the group NBCT GTE score was 4.73 versus the group NNCT GTE score of 4.17 on a 7-point Likert scale. The p value was .1349. Second, obtaining NBCT status is a unique professional development experience that results in a highly developed, reflective pedagogy and access to future professional development opportunities. The options available to NBCTs include highly visible and influential educational leadership positions that extend beyond the NBCT's local school district to the state and even national level. Similar professional advancement vehicles are lacking for NNBCTs because they lack national board teacher certification.

Subject Area

Teacher education

Recommended Citation

Smikle, Sheryl Tracy, "Efficacy, goals, and reflection: A comparison of National Board Certified Teachers and non -National Board Certified teachers" (2004). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI3134450.