Day- and after-school goal structures' impact on goal orientations, self-efficacy, and performance

Heather Alperin Bohn, Fordham University


This exploratory study examined the impact of mastery and performance-approach goal structures communicated by after-school programs and school day classroom teachers on students' individual goal orientations, academic self-efficacy, and academic performance. It extended achievement goal theory research to the after-school program setting. Participants included 67 middle school students, who participated in Supplemental Educational Services (SES), a federal after-school program for students of low-income families who attend low performing schools. Students were administered the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS), a self-report survey, to measure goal structures, goal orientations, and academic self-efficacy. Hierarchical regression were conducted for each dependent variable to explore the impact of after-school program goal structures beyond that provided for by school day classroom goal structures. Results indicated that student perceptions of after-school program performance-approach goal structures significantly predicted an individual performance-approach goal orientation beyond that accounted for by classroom performance-approach goal structures. Perceptions of after-school program mastery and performance-approach goal structures predicted academic self-efficacy, although classroom goal structures were not significant predictors. The discussion explained results in light of previous findings. Particularly, performance-approach goals are more dependent on extrinsic considerations and may be more impacted by after-school programs than mastery goals. After-school programs may be most effective when they match students' individual goal orientations, although students' goal orientations may impact their perceptions of goal structures. Limitations include a small sample size, lack of random sampling, and high correlations between variables.

Subject Area

Middle School education|Educational psychology|Developmental psychology

Recommended Citation

Alperin Bohn, Heather, "Day- and after-school goal structures' impact on goal orientations, self-efficacy, and performance" (2012). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI3517890.