Document Type

Conference Proceeding


cognitive robotics, problem-solving, simulation, computer vision, sensory fusion


Computer Engineering | Robotics


An important component of cognitive robotics is the ability to mentally simulate physical processes and to compare the expected results with the information reported by a robot's sensors. In previous work, we have proposed an approach that integrates a 3D game-engine simulation into the robot control architecture. A key part of that architecture is the Match-Mediated Difference (MMD) operation, an approach to fusing sensory data and synthetic predictions at the image level. The MMD operation insists that simulated and predicted scenes are similar in terms of the appearance of the objects in the scene. This is an overly restrictive constraint on the simulation since parts of the predicted scene may not have been previously viewed by the robot.

In this paper we propose an extended MMD operation that relaxes the constraint and allows the real and synthetic scenes to differ in some features but not in (selected) other features. Image difference operations that allow a real image and synthetic image generated from an arbitrarily colored graphical model of a scene to be compared. Scenes with the same content show a zero difference. Scenes with varying foreground objects can be controlled to compare the color, size and shape of the foreground.

Article Number


Publication Date



Multisensor, Multisource Information Fusion: Architectures, Algorithms, and Applications at the SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, Orlando (Kissimmee), FL, April 2011

This research was conducted at the Fordham University Robotics and Computer Vision Lab. For more information about graduate programs in Computer Science, see, and the Fordham University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, see

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Robotics Commons