Demographically corrected norms for the Brief Visuospatial MemoryTest-Revised and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised in Monolingual Spanish Speakers from the U.S. – Mexico Border Region

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Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences


The large number of primary Spanish speakers both in the United States and the world makes it imperative that appropriate neuropsychological assessment instruments be available to serve the needs of these populations. In this article we describe the norming process for Spanish speakers from the U.S.–Mexico border region on the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-revised and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-revised. We computed the rates of impairment that would be obtained by applying the original published norms for these tests to raw scores from the normative sample, and found substantial overestimates compared to expected rates. As expected, these overestimates were most salient at the lowest levels of education, given the under-representation of poorly educated subjects in the original normative samples. Results suggest that demographically corrected norms derived from a healthy Spanish-speaking adults with a broad range of education, are less likely to result in diagnostic errors. At minimum, demographic corrections for the tests in question should include the influence of literacy or education, in addition to the traditional adjustments for age. Because the age range of our sample was limited, the norms presented should not be applied to elderly populations.

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