Differences in Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) Between Patients with Tic Related OCD and Non-Tic Related OCD: A Preliminary Investigation

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Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Executive dysfunction has been implicated in the neurobiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Few studies have examined differences between individuals with OCD with or without tics. In this study executive functioning was compared between patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder with and without a history of tics. Participants diagnosed with OCD, with and without tics (n¼10 per group) were administered the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) along with a measures of symptom severity for OCD, tics and depression. The groups did not differ in demographic variables or depression. Results indicated differences in performance on the WCST. Specifically, patients with past or current tics made more non-perseverative and total errors on theWCST and also demonstrated significantly more difficulty with conceptual level responding as compared to a normative sample, whereas the group without a tic history did not. Our findings, along with supporting evidence from imaging research and clinical trials, suggests that the presence of tics may be a valid means for subtyping individuals with obsessive– compulsive disorder.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.