Neuropsychological Impairment in Racial/Ethnic Minorities with HIV Infection and Low Literacy Levels: Effects of Education and Reading Level in Participant Characterization

Elizabeth L. Ryan, The Mount Sinai Medical Center
Reon Baird, The Mount Sinai Medical Center
Monica Rivera Mindt, Fordham University
Desiree Byrd, The Mount Sinai Medical Center
Jennifer Monzones, The Mount Sinai Medical Center
Susan Morgello
The Manhattan HIV Brain Bank

APA Citation: Ryan, E.L., Baird, R., Rivera Mindt, M., Byrd, D., Monzones, J., Morgello, S., & the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank. (2006). Neuropsychological impairment in racial/ethnic minorities with HIV infection and low literacy levels: Effects of education and reading level in participant characterization. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11,(7), 889-898.

The final version of record is available at: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.


Educational attainment is an important factor in the interpretation of cognitive test scores but years of education are not necessarily synonymous with educational quality among racial0ethnic minority populations. This study investigated the comparability of educational attainment with reading level and examined whether discrepancies in education and reading level accounted for differences in neuropsychological test performance between HIV1 racial0ethnic minority and nonminority participants. Study participants (N = 200) were derived from the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank (MHBB) where 50% of the cohort had less than or equal to 8th grade reading level but only 5% had 8 years of education. Significantly lower reading ability and education was found among African Americans and Hispanics, and these participants were more likely to have discrepant reading and education levels compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Discrepancy in reading and education level was associated with worse neuropsychological performance while racial0ethnic minority status was not. As years of schooling overestimated racial0ethnic minority participants’ educational quality, standard norms based on education may inflate impairment rates among racial0ethnic minorities. Identifying appropriate normative standards is and will continue to be important in the detection of cognitive impairment in racial0ethnic minorities with HIV. (JINS, 2005, 11, 889–898.)